THE FIRST SCIENTIFIC BOOK WRITTEN IN CUBA. It was published, in Madrid, the “Art of Sailing”, written by Lazaro de Flores, a physician born in Seville, Spain. This work was written in Havana between 1663 and 1672. As proposed by its own name, it is an auxiliary text for pilots of ships; that is, a book on applied astronomy. Despite this book do not correspond to any existing tradition in Cuba regarding astronomy, and Mr. Flores had no immediate successor, it was inspired in the significant port activity. It presents a very approximately real calculation of the length of Havana, the first reference to Copernicus in a written work in Cuba (despite of the fact that the author was nor Copernicus’ follower), and the first reference to an astronomic instrument manufactured in Havana (a quadrant). At present this book is considered a weird book. In Cuba exists only one sample of it.
INTRODUCTION OF THE PRINTER’S. The oldest printed test known in Havana was the general Tariff of Price made by the Belgian Charles Habre. Two other works were published in the same printer’s (1724 and 1727). Those are the only printings known in Cuba until 1736, when a new workshop, the one run by Francisco José de Paula, published the thesis paper Coelestis astrea in Mexico, Peru, Guatemala, and during Jesuit missions in Paraguay. After Havana, it was established in Bogota, Santiago de Chile, Buenos Aires and San Juan of Puerto Rico. The most important printer’s during the XVIII century and part of the XIX was that from the General Captaincy, founded in 1781 (SEE 1787), although, Esteban Jose de Bolona (1787) achieved reputation due the typographic quality and beauty of his publications.
LIBRARY OF THE ECONOMIC SOCIETY OF FRIENDS OF THE COUNTRY. It opened in 1793, it is the oldest in Cuba, and it had significant collections for the national culture, which shape the source of books from the XIX. Custody of the Library stock of the Institute of Literature and Linguistics.
CREATION OF THE ANATOMIC MUSEUM. The Anatomic Museum of the Military Hospital of Havana was opened in the Convent of San Agustin (Cuba Street between Amargura and Teniente Rey, Old Havana). Afterwards, it was moved to a hall in the Military Hospital of San Ambrosio. It had anatomic pieces made of wax and a surgery instrumental set for the teaching of Anatomy. Since 1834, classes on body dissections were taught in an amphitheater. Its first director, the Spanish surgeon, Francisco de Paula Alonso and Fernandez, and his continuator, the Havana surgeon, Nicolas Jose Gutierrez and Hernandez introduced and applied a great number of surgery techniques for first time in Cuba. Havana for the first time had suitable conditions for the teaching of surgery.
FIRST EPIDEMY OF ASIAN CHOLERA IN CUBA. It broke out, in Havana, in February and it caused 8000 deaths only in three months. This decease came from the United States, beating for second time this country. Other cholera epidemics with fewer deaths affected Cuba from 1850 -1856; 1865 and 1867- 1870. After 1870, this disease only appears sporadically. One of the procedures used to fight cholera was two cannon shots by all the forts of Havana, at the sunrise to “clean the atmosphere from mephitic miasmas”.
MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. After the cabinet created by Antonio Parra (SEE 1787), there was not in Havana any museum of natural history. Furthermore, in 1838, the Cuban Society of Friends of the Country approved the creation of one of them, which would be under the direction of Felipe Poey. Ever since, Poey contacted national and foreign naturalists, which would provide great amount of zoological, botanical, and mineralogical and materials to the museum. Perhaps around 1840, these materials were arranged in one of the halls of Havana University, in the Convent of Santo Domingo. Although, still being part of the Cuban Society of Friends of the Country, the collection was used for teaching purposes by Havana University from its secularization in 1842. In 1849, the Economic Society, due to lack of financial resources passed the museum to the university. This was the first of natural history the country had, although, it existed in very precarious conditions. Part of its collection is still preserved in the Museum Felipe Poey of Havana University.
FIRST TELEGRAPHIC LINE: The first telegraphic line is opened in Cuba, between Bejucal and Havana, through all railroad way, which was finished in 1837. This telegraphic line was installed 5 years before the one from Spain. The first telegraphic station was also opened in the area where currently is placed the Havana Central Park, and the first Academy of Electric Telegraphers, managed by Roberto Simpson, having more than 25 students.
PRIZE AWARDED TO FRANCISCO DE ALBEAR'S PROJECT FOR AN AQUEDUCT IN HAVANA. This very year the engineering project of Francisco de Albear, won the golden medal in the International Exhibit of Paris. It was a valuable recognition to the merit of the lengthy and difficult works carried out since 1856, to provide water to Havana coming from Vento Springs, through a monumental and large aqueduct. In 1878, Albear connected part of the built aqueduct with the aqueduct net Fernando VII (existing since 1835) in which it distributed water to Havana (although very limited) from Vento’s. Six years later after Albear’s death, 1887, it was officially opened Albear’s Aqueduct (1893) which construction lasted 40 years and cost more than 5 millions pesos. The work, a colossal one for its time, allowed the capital to have clean water meaning a significant contribution for a healthier capital. [PMP]
PRIZE AWARDED TO THE CUBAN ICHTHYOLOGY BY FELIPE POEY. Between May and October it was exhibit in the Colonial International Exposition and the General Export of Amsterdam, Holland, the writing of the Cuban eminent naturalist Felipe Poey Aloy, Cuban Ichthyology or Natural History of Fishes in the Island of Cuba. In this monumental work are figured and described many species of Cuban Fishes. Ichthyology was awarded the golden medal at the exhibit, and the King of Netherlands, William III, bestowed his author with the Cross of Netherlands Lion. This work has not been completely published. Several partial editions were published in 1955 and 1962.Currently, it exists a true copy of this work, ready for edition that are preserved in Madrid and Havana, which comparison and revision were carried out by a Cuban expert. [RMG].
FIRST AUTOMOBILE. In this year, probably before, the first car appeared in Havana streets. It was made in France, in the factory La Parisienne. The car had two horsepower and the fastest speed was 12 km/hr. Somebody by named Jose Munoz owned it. Afterwards, the wealthy pharmacist Jose Sarra introduced in the country another French car, a Rochet Schneider with four seats and convertible. The engine had 8 horsepower. In 1900, there was an Automobile Company headed by the Marquis of Pinar del Rio, who introduced cars made in the United States. For commercial purposes, it offered a trip to Havana neighboring provinces. In 1906, cars racing as sport started in Havana, by means of these competitions famous chauffeurs met in the island. [OSS]
BOTANIC DICTIONARY. The Botanic Dictionary of common names by Thomas Roig was published as important tool for the botanic research in Cuba. It last edition appeared in 1963. [MVG]
FOURTEEN MICROSTATIONS OF PASTURE WERE CREATED in all Cuban provinces, from the original station “Niña Bonita”, which is located close to Havana, 14 microstations of pastures were created for a program of assessment taking into consideration the particular characteristics of each territory. In 1962, the Station of Pastures and fodders “Indio Hatuey” had been created in Perico, Matanzas Province, the first in the country.
BEGINNING OF THE WORKS ON THE NATIONAL BOTANIC GARDEN. It was officially open by Fidel Castro Ruz, in October 26, 1989.
THE NATIONAL CENTER OF LABORATORY ANIMAL PRODUCTION WAS OPENED. This institution has a full technology for obtaining Axenic Experimental Biomodels. It has gnotoxenic genetic stocks. The development of biotechnology would have been impossible as well as the medical-pharmaceutical industry in Cuba without the animals produced in this center.
GEOLOGICAL MAP OF CUBA. The geological survey of Cuba in this scale, taking as point of departure provincial surveys, began in 1968, supported by USSR, Bulgarian, Hungarian, and Polish specialists from their own academy of sciences. The work was arranged by the Institute of Geology and Paleontology of the Cuban Academy of Sciences that belongs to the Ministry of Basic Industry. The fulfillment of this map, allows a more uniform view the different geological formations of the country and constitute a main support for the prospecting of minerals, construction and hydraulic works, etc, in addition to the significant contribution to geographical and geophysical research. Cuba is the only Latin-American country that produces maps with these characteristics, and few countries have a geological survey at this scale. [PMP]
ROYAL AND PONTIFICAL UNIVERSITY OF HAVANA. On September 12, 1721, Pope Innocent XIII, in his brief Aeternae Sapientiae, approved the foundation of the Convent San Juan de Letran, of the Dominican Preacher order. This order was claiming for privilege since 1670. On January 26, 1722, king Phillip V allowed the aforementioned “brief”. However, it was not until January 5, 1728 this institution was founded. It was due to some restrains imposed by Havana bishop, Jeronimo Valdes, who seemed to favor the order Compania de Jesus, which since 1724 had a college in Havana; but on September 23, 1728, Phillip V approved the foundation of the University –for second time. During XVIII and XIX centuries there were several attempts to separate the university from the Dominican order, but it was only possible after their exclusion in 1842. The university would graduate theologists, lawyers and physicians. [PMP, PRG]
ECONOMIC SOCIETY OF FRIENDS OF THE COUNTRY. It emerged on January 9, the Patriotic Royal Society of Havana or Royal Economic Society of Friends of the Country as forum for discussion and promotion of developmental plans in all the spheres of the colonial Havana society, spreading its influence to the rest of the country. It had three sections with the aim of promoting the industrial, agricultural, educational, scientific and cultural aspects, highlighting special attention in the Educational Section. The very year of its foundation, one of the promoters, Nicolas Calvo de la Puerta y O´Farrill, advocate for the establishment of professorships on chemistry and botanic, in order to update the old methods for sugar production and its cultivation. Despite the long time elapsed, these professorships were established with the support of the Society, although, it was only stable in 1837 and 1824, respectively. The Society also support reformations in general teaching, specially in the experimental teaching in the Seminar of San Carlos 1814; the modernization of the medical teaching in the Military Hospital, 1823; the creation of the Botanic Garden, 1817; a Natural History Museum, 1838; and the first library of Havana. The memories of the Society constitute an indispensable instrument to learn on technical and scientific advances in the country during XIX century. Many of the plans and realizations of the Royal Patriotic Society depended upon the will and financial support of the Spanish government or property-owners of the Royal Board of Promotion, which emerged in 1795 under the name of Royal Consulate of Agriculture and Trade, which was transformed in 1831 into a Board, when the Trade Jury got separate from its functions. Fernando Ortiz named the Economic Society “the Cuban daughter of Enlightenment”; in fact its great splendor belonged to the influence of the Spanish Illustration, which lasted until 30’s of the last century. Although, less important, due to the emerged new societies and institutes, the Society existed until 1961. Its building and library passed to the Institute of Literature and Linguistics of the Cuban Academy of Sciences. [RMJ, PMP]
Dr. EUSEBIO HERNANDEZ PEREZ IS BORN IN MATANZAS. He was a specialist in gynecology and obstetrics; doctor of the patriots Maximo Gomez and Calixto Garcia. He was an outstanding patriot, who obtained the military rank of General of the Liberator Army. He was the first who made a pelvitomy in Cuba. He was a Member of the Academy of Medical, Physic, and Natural Sciences. [MHCCJF]
AN IN-BULK SUGAR LANDING BASE IS OPENED in Carupano port. It not only humanized the work, but it was a Cuban project with Cuban executors from the existing facilities in the place where formerly was stored the sugar in sacks.
JOSE MARTI Y PEREZ IS BORN, our National Hero, his writings on sciences are an inspiration for everyone, for he was aware of the scientific advances of his time and highlighted its importance in many articles.
Mr. TOMAS ROMAY CARRIES OUT ITS FIRST VACCINATION “arm to arm” on February 1803. In 1800, Spanish doctors got interested on vaccination and its realization. Once introduced in Spain, it was spread to Spanish Colonies in America. On November 1803, a Spanish Sanitary Expedition addressed to Puerto Rico, Cuba and Mexico under the commands of Dr. Francisco Javier Balmis. He took with him some kids, who inoculate each other “arm to arm” to preserve the vaccine during the trip. A year before the departure of Balmis’ expedition the Havana Economic Society of Friends of the Country had received news on vaccination in England, and on its introduction in Spain and the United States. In 1802, it entrusted Dr. Tomas Romay to search on “smallpox cattle” among the cattle of the island. Then, Tomas Romay, former supporter of the assessment carried out in the country (it was simply called “inoculation”), starts his struggle in favor of vaccination. Romay traveled the whole island trying to find animals, which had smallpox cattle, but he didn’t find them. This cattle disease may not be existed in Cuba; but the human smallpox was very present in Cuba, appearing several cases per year. Finally, it was adopted to import three small glass bottles with the vaccine pus, but the results were not what expected by Romay. With the arrival of one of the kids who had received the vaccine in Puerto Rico (probably introduced in England or the United States), allowed Romay to carry out the first successful vaccination “arm to arm”, in February 1803. Although, a month before the French surgeon Vignard had carried out a successful vaccination, in Santiago de Cuba, his vaccination was not spread and got lost, being really Romay’s one, the one capable of dissemination, not being interrupted. [PMP]
LAZARO DE FLORES, THE DOCTOR FROM SEVILLE WHO DETERMINED THE MERIDIAN OF OUR CAPITAL, taking the one from Seville as Greenwich Meridian, dies in Havana. His findings are registered in the first scientific book written in Cuba, his book “Art of Sailing”, published in Madrid in 1673 (it is thought, in Cuba there was Printer’s only in 1763). It’s been considered that Flores determined the length of Havana with an error of one degree.
FELIX VARELA DIES in the exile, United States. A Philosopher, a Pedagogue, the first Cuban thinker who stated the separation from Spain, the struggle for independence and a radical modernization of the teaching in the country. He founded the first Cuban pro-independence Newspaper “El Habanero”. He wrote the first text for modern physic teaching in Cuba, and one of the first in America. In 1816, he created a cabinet of physics for demonstrative experiments for teaching purposes in the Seminar of San Ambrosio and San Carlos, where he would teach his lessons. His philosophical lessons applied to Chemistry and Physics revolutionized the teaching with his explicative method and dissemination of scientific advances. He was born in February 20, 1788. [MHCCJF]
THE PROTEST OF THE THIRTEEN. It occurred in the Main hall of the Academy of Medical, physic, and Natural Sciences of Havana, it was a denunciation to the corruption of the neocolonial government of Alfredo Zayas. It was an expression in the shaping of a national awareness for social change.
FRANCISCO CALCAGNO DIES in Barcelona, Spain; he was born in Güines, 1927. There is an in-between period of wars from 1878 to 1895, in which under the shadow of a precarious peace, the scientific development are increased, in agencies and magazines, in the introduction of new methodologies and even in the international scenery. In this environment emerged the fiction in science –science fiction as it is called today- and the versatile Francisco Calcagno, published “En busca del eslabón” (1888) a fantastic novel, precursor of the current science fiction movement, in which with a warm native humor, he makes easier the Darwinian critics on the scholastic doctrines, following, up to certain degree, the tracks of Julio Verne.
JOSE ELIAS ENTRALGO VALLINA is born in Havana, March 28, 1903, and dies in this very city, September 4, 1966. He was a Historian, a Sociologist, and a pedagogue. He was also an outstanding intellectual and publicist. When he died he was dean of the faculty of Humanities of Havana University and president of the Cuban National Commission of UNESCO.
RAMON DIONISIO DE LA SAGRA Y PEREZ IS BORN. A notable naturalist specialized in Botanic; original from Galicia, he lived for a long time in Havana; he was director of the Botanic National Garden since 1824, taking this institution to the highest splendor. Within his works are “Memories of the Agronomy Institution of Havana” “Principle of the Botanic Agriculture” and “Political and Natural History of the Island of Cuba”. (MHCCJF)
IT IS CREATED THE INSTITUTE OF DOCUMENTATION AND SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION (IDICT), through the law No. 1107 of the Revolutionary Government attached to the National Commission of the Cuban Academy of Sciences. Among its main goals was to establish the bases for the organization of a National System of Scientific and Technical Information. In 1976, branches in all the provinces were established. At present, IDICT has among its databases the Collective Catalogue of Serial Publications with the collections of the National Library of Science and Technique (founded on July 18, 1988) and other cooperative entities where it is indicated the physical localization of original documental sources, as well as CUBACIENCIA database, which has around thirty thousand (30 000) registers, with resumes of Cuban documental sources dealing with scientific subjects such as technical solutions presented in the National Forums of Science and Technique, doctoral Thesis presented by Cubans in the country and abroad, the prizes awarded by the Cuban Academy of Sciences since 1990 and other works.
MANUEL GONZALEZ ECHEVERRIA IS BORN, a significant Cuban physician, neurologist of extraordinary international prestige; a professor from the mental and nervous disease professorship in the University of New York; director of the “Hospital of Crazies” of Havana; he was considered to be among the most outstanding personalities in his specialty in the world. His work “Epilepsy” is of a high scientific value. He was a member of the Academy of Medical, Physic, and Natural Sciences. (MHCCJF)
IT IS ESTABLISHED THE LAW-DECREE 68 ON INVENTIONS, SCIENTIFIC FINDINGS, INDUSTRIAL MODELS, TRADEMARKS AND ORIGIN DENOMINATIONS. This decree substitutes the obsolete legislation of 1936 and establishes the Certificate of Author as legal protection for results of creative works, and makes obligatory to protect inventions, mark products and consult the information of patents before researching, investing or executing other creative and productive activities.
DR. CARLOS DE LA TORRE Y HUERTA IS BORN IN MATANZAS. He was a naturalist, malacologist, anthropologist and museologist. He discovered marine fossils called ammonites, which demonstrate that the western part of Cuba was underwater during the Jurassic period and the existence in Cuba of the Megalocnus rodents. A scientist who enjoyed a high international recognition; a glory of our natural sciences. He was a member of the Academy of Medical, Physic, and Natural Sciences and was in charge of his museums for more than thirty years. [MHCCJF]
FIRST FLIGHT FROM KEY WEST TO HAVANA. The Cuban pilots, Domingo Rosillo and Agustin Parla, flies, independently, from Key West to Havana (up to Mariel in the case of Parla). Next year, the Cuban Jaime Hernandez flies from Cienfuegos to Havana (285 km) and in 1915, from Santiago de Cuba to the Capital (750 km) [OSS]
CARLOS RAFAEL RODRIGUEZ RODRIGUEZ WAS BORN in Cienfuegos, May 23 1913, and died in Havana, December 8, 1997. He was a politician and an economist. He registered in Havana University and finished Law, and Politic, Social and Economic Science studies in four years, graduated with the highest marks; from 33 subjects, he received 33 outstanding qualifications, 31 ordinary prizes and 4 extraordinary ones, so as the National Prize “Gonzalez Lanusa In Memoriam”, to the best student of Law.
THE CUBAN INSTITUTE OF SUGAR CANE BY-PRODUCTS RESEARCH IS FOUNDED. This Institute has been devoted specially to cellulose (paper and synthetic fibers) works. Afterwards, they would work on furfural and its by-products in the field of fermentations in alcohol, yeast and dextrines. Its purpose is to search a higher value added in the production of sugars and marginal productions.
CUBAN SOCIETY OF NATURAL HISTORY “FELIPE POEY”. It was founded on May 26, in commemoration to the 115 anniversaries of the Felipe Poey’s birth, by initiative of his disciple, Carlos de la Torre. For 48 years it gathered naturalists from he country, allowing the presentation of works and debates in the field of mineralogy, geology, botanic, zoology, anthropology, paleontology, agronomy, and its application. Its Memories are of notable importance, they were published between 1915 and 1961. This aforementioned year, it no longer existed passing its functions to the Museum of Natural History “Felipe Poey”, opened by the Cuban Academy of Sciences. Afterwards, its important, library passed to the Institute of Biology of the Academy [PMP]
CUBAN INSTITUTE OF SUGAR RESEARCH. After the national harvest of 1970 and when some workers involved on research and developmental activities from the Ministry of Sugar moved to the Sugarmill “Pablo Noriega”. The idea of creating an institution for research in the industrial sugar sector takes shape after being indicated by the direction of the national government the former decade. The Institute was founded as a research-production joining, having attached a sugar factory of 1000t capacity as experimental base to fulfill the cycle from the conception of the research to the assessment at factory level. Its research targets were linked to technology and sugar equipment, ensuring quality including new analytic techniques, development of carbohydrate chemistry research, and thermo energetic efficiency. There was no exclusion of technical and scientific services in the advisory and defection in front of difficulties at the industrial processes during the harvest and reparations at different sugarmills of the country regarding to the quality and experience of the scientific potential. In 1984, JUCEPLAN and the State Committee of Finances officially approved the fusion of the Agribusiness Complex “Pablo Noriega” together with the Institute of Sugar Research, what was published in the Official Gazetteer of Cuba dated on 29 August 1984. Currently, the facilities are located in the neighboring area of the University Center “Julio Antonio Mella”.
THE ROYAL ARSENAL OF HAVANA officially was created – since the constructive tradition gained during a century and a half - on June 27, 1713 through order issued by the King of Spain. It was opened in 1724, with the launching of the warship “San Juan”, which had 50 cannons. The arsenal originally was between the Castle of the Royal Force and the Convent of San Francisco, but in 1748 it moved to the area occupied, at present, by the building and the patios of the Railroad Station of Havana. In this place were made the slipways for ships. The formers were built in facilities relatively simples.
ESTABLISHMENT OF A DECORATION SYSTEM AND HONORIFIC TITLES through the Law 17 of the National Assembly of the Cuban Parliament approved in its first ordinary period of sessions on June 1978. In the system of decorations was ratified the Order Carlos J. Finlay created on January 21, 1928 to recognize national and foreign citizens with merits and valuable contributions to sciences.
CREATION OF THE SCIENCES FACULTY OF HAVANA UNIVERSITY. When entering into force a new syllabus for Cuban students –July 15- it was opened the faculty of sciences at Havana University. Until 1880 it was only given the title of Bachelor required for registration at Medical, Pharmacy, and Law Faculties. In 1880, it would give B.Sc. titles, and since 1883, Doctor titles. Among the most outstanding professors were Felipe Poey y Aloy, Antonio Caro (Experimental physics), the naturalists, Juan Vilaro, Carlos de la Torre and Aristedes Mestre, the anthropologist, Luis Montane, and more recently, the Physic Manuel F. Gran, and the mathematician Pablo Miguel. With the university reformation, 1962, the Faculty of Sciences was divided into several faculties [RMG]
JULIAN ACUNA GALE DIED, during an abroad trip. He was born in Camaguey, February 27, 1900. He was not only devoted to the study of several plants, and collected a considerable herbarium, but contributed with the introduction in Cuba of Kenaf, a species producer of fibers, and other several foreign plants. He successfully managed a research program and phytosanitary measures against the rice dangerous viral disease “raya blanca”. Among the groups of Cuban plants to which he devoted more attention are orchids, in 1938, he dedicated them a descriptive catalogue. He was always aware of the economic applications of botanic, he studied mellipherous plants of Cuba and prepared a book about them in 1970. In1974, his work on “weeds” was published: Undesirable plants in Cuban crops.
FOUNDATION OF THE CUBAN SOCIETY OF ENGINEERS. It was founded on August 11, 1908, this Society gathered most of Cuban and foreign Engineers who worked in Cuba. This Society created an environment for discussion of numerous problems of national interest regarding the work of engineers. In this Society was published a bulletin, and had an important library and a valuable archive of plans. It existed no longer in 1961. [PMP]
JACINTO TORRAS DIED in Havana, August 24, 1963. He was born in this city in August 6, 1909; he was a militant economist, adviser of the worker movement, he is in-depth expert of the sugar economy and foreign trade who helped to set the bases for the socialist organization of this sector of the economy.
THE ROYAL AND PONTIFICAL UNIVERSITY OF HAVANA ISSUES ITS FIRST TITLE OF DOCTOR. (B.Sc. and Doctor) in favor of Luis Fountaine Culemburg. (MHCCJF)
JOSE ANTONIO PRESNO BASTIONY DIED in Havana, he was born in Regla March 19, 1876. When he was 26 joined the Academy of Medical, Physic, and Natural Sciences of Havana, as First Academic. His tireless surgical job was extended to several medical centers. For fifty years he was: Professor; Minister of Health for two times; Rector of the University and Professor Emeritus; President, reelected for several times, and Academic of Merit of the Academy of Medical, Physic, and Natural Sciences of Havana; correspondent Member of the Medical Academy of Paris, Madrid, New York, Halle, Mexico, and Guatemala, and a Member of the Permanent International Committee of Surgery of Brussels.
LOCAL ANESTHESIA IS APPLIED FOR FIRST TIME IN CUBA by Dr. Fernando Gonzalez del Valle; an outstanding member of the Royal Academy of Medical, Physic, and Natural Sciences of Havana; this happened at the Hospital “San Francisco de Paula” (MHCCJF)
FIRST PUBLIC DISCUSSION ON DARWINISM. In October 11, in his admission speech to the Royal Academy of Medical, Physic, and Natural Sciences of Havana, Francisco de Frías y Jacott, Count of Pozos Dulces, explained for first time some aspects on the evolution theory of Charles Darwin (published in 1959) and expressed his opposition to it. Felipe Poey, in his reply speech, considered that the transformation of species was an “open question”. [AGG]
JULIAN CARLOS THEYE LHOSTE BORNS in Havana, October 24, 1953, and died in this very city, October 14, 1928. He was a chemist and a pedagogue. In 1865, he moved to Paris where he obtained the Diploma of Engineer of Arts and Manufactures, specialty of Chemistry. In 1877, he came back to Cuba, where he worked as chemist until January 1880 when he founded the first Chemical Laboratory of the Landowner Clubhouse. When he passed away, 1928, his colleagues decided to pay homage to his memory naming after him the Chemical Lab of the School of Sciences.
MANUEL FRANCISCO GRAN GUILLEDO IS BORN IN HAVANA. He graduated from Architecture and Engineering and Dr of Mathematic and Physic Sciences, and Dr. of Physic and Chemical Sciences; he was an eminent university professor. He was a man of a vast culture, polyglot; Ambassador of Cuba in France appointed by the Revolutionary Government. He was a Member of the Royal Academy of Medical, Physic, and Natural Sciences of Havana.
JUAN MARINELLO VIDAURRETA is born in a small town called “Jicotea” (Sancti Spiritus province), November 2, 1898. Great part of his intellectual life was fully devoted to disclose the essence of Jose Marti’s ideals purpose and transcendence, its “root and wing”. Marti’s facet -as he said- if it’s not the only, it is among the most intimate of his life.
Dr. RAMON CLAUDIO DELGADO AMESTOY is born, in San Sebastian, Spain. He was Finlay’s friend and collaborator in the greatest discovery of the tropical medicine, the transmission through a biological vector. He was a precursor of blood transfusions in our country. Member of the Academy of Medical, Physic, and Natural Sciences of Havana (MHCCJF)
OSCAR AMOEDO VALDES IS BORN IN MATANZAS. Physician and Odontologist of great international prestige; he was considered the first Cuban dentist of his time and the founder of Legal Odontology. (MHCCJF)
CREATION OF THE INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL RESEARCH OF HAVANA by initiative and under the direction of Jose Luis Casaseca y Silvan. It was one of the first of its type in the world. Until 1858, when Casaseca came back to Spain, the works at the Institute were basically devoted to chemical industry, mainly sugar, although the first steps on the analysis of fertilizers and soils were given. In July 1859, the mentioned doctor of chemical sciences (graduated in Paris) Alvaro Reynoso y Valdes became director of the Institute, who focused on the technical improvement of agriculture, and the optimization of soils. His transcendental Essay on the culture of sugar cane, 1862, belongs to this period of his life. [RMJ and PMP]
ENRIQUE JOSE VARONA PERA WAS BORN IN CAMAGUEY (or Puerto Principe, as it is still known), April 13, 1849, and died in Havana, November 19, 1933. A man of moderate ideas and calm attitudes, he was an autonomist until 1885, when he set aside from this political tendency and followed Jose Marti and joined the struggle for independency. He managed “Patria” newspaper, organ of the Cuban Revolutionary Party, founded by our National Hero.
FELIX VARELA Y MORALES IS BORN. A distinguished philosopher and pedagogue; he introduced the teaching of Physics through experimental methods; his philosophy and pedagogy were openly antischolastic. His work fully justified him to be called “the first who taught us to think” He died on February 25, 1853. (MHCCJF)
FERNANDO PORTUONDO DEL PRADO WAS BORN on November 24,1903, in Santiago de Cuba and died on June 25, 1975, in La Habana. He was pedagogue and historian.
THE PROFESSIONAL ETHIC CODE OF THE WORKERS OF SCIENCES IN CUBA is published after a previous study with the scientific community on the standards and principles that ruled their activity. Before its dissemination, a discussion and analysis process was carried out in the different scientific groups.
CARLOS J. FINLAY BARRES IS BORN in Puerto Principe, Camaguey. A wise Cuban doctor who carried out the greatest scientific discovery of the tropical medicine: the transmission of diseases through a biological vector (a mosquito). This discovery saved humanity from the calamity of the “Yellow Fever”.
A PROJECT FOR A CUBAN INSTITUTE. By Royal Order dated on February 1832, it was disposed the establishment “in the monarchy capitals the teaching of arithmetic, mechanic, chemistry, and applied delineation to arts (jobs) and to agriculture” On the other hand, since 1825, it had been studied to carried out reformations on teaching of the Nautical School of Regla (a job school open in this town between 1816 and 1818) and its removal to the capital. José de la Luz y Caballero took advantage of this opportunity to support the removal and propose, at the same time, through a report to the Promotion Board, dated on December 11, 1833, the application and transformation of the mentioned school into a “Scientific School”, which he called the “Cuban Institute”, for the teaching of mathematics, lineal design, nautical, physics, chemistry and live languages to youngsters from Havana. The purpose of the Institute was to prepare –according to Luz’ words- deep skilful and theoretical teachers, instead of turgid or superficial experts”. The school should also serve as a normal school, for the training of pedagogues. Luz’ project was revived by some Spanish officials, during the university reformation of 1863 and it should focus on the formation (frustrated) of a special College attached to the university (which was reduced to an Institute of Second Teaching). [PMP]
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE NATIONAL SYSTEM OF STANDARD, METROLOGY, AND QUALITY CONTROL. The legal body enters into force through an agreement of the Council of Ministries on December 25, 1978. In 1959, it had been created the Institute of Research on Metrology, and afterwards, in 1975, the Institute of Research on Standard. In 1976, it was created the State Committee of Standard. As all productive, productive services entities have any expression on this field, it has emerged a national lab network to respond to certain requirements.
ANDRE VOISIN WAS BORN in Dieppe, Normandy, France, January 7, 1903, and died in Havana, December 21, 1964. He actively participated in the French resistance against the Germany occupation until the end of warlike struggle. It was in this period that he began researches on earth and the herb as food. By means of an expressed invitation of Leader of the Cuban Revolution, and with the purpose to teach a course on cattle and agricultural specialties at Havana University, he arrived to the Island on December 3, 1964. On December 8 the cycle of conference at Havana University was opened. On December 11, in a lunch offered by the Ambassador of France and with the presence of the Cuban Prime Minister, Fidel Castro Ruz; Dr. Juan Mier Febles, Rector of Havana University, it was informed to Voisin he had been bestowed Doctor Honoris Causa in Veterinary Science by the high teaching institution, this distinction would have been awarded on January 7, 1965, in commemoration to his birthday. Nonetheless, a heart attack in the myocardium, in December 21, deprived the world to continue to have lively this notable man of sciences. (100 RBV).
CUBAN ORNITHOLOGY. This was a top work by the German zoologist Juan Cristobal Gundlach, established in Cuba since 1839. This work constitutes a reviewing and widening of his Contribution to the Cuban ornithology (1876) Gundlach was, after Felipe Poey, the most important personality among the Cuban naturalists of the XIX century. He published several papers and books on mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, insects, crustaceans, and mollusks of the country and kept contact with the most brilliant European and American naturalists of the time. He opened an important museum at the Institute of Second Teaching of Havana since 1880. [PMP]
 Spanish Acronym from Instituto de Documentación e Información Cientifico Técnica.
 Central Board of Planning
Traducción no Verificada “white ray”